The World in One City: Immigrant Integration in Liverpool

By Nunzia Di Cristo Bertali and Jarmila Hickman.

Published by The International Journal of Civic, Political, and Community Studies

Format Price
Article: Print $US10.00
Published online: May 7, 2014 $US5.00

This exploratory study focuses on immigrant women who have been living in Liverpool since 2001. Its aim is to identify the difference - if any – between a subjective perception of integration of the respondents and the findings derived from an objective evaluation of their integration based on the collected data. The foreign women contacted had arrived from all over the world and the extensive questionnaire addressed a breadth of aspects relating to the individuals and their relation to the host community. The intention of the study is not to examine exclusionary or inclusionary practices at play in Liverpool. A wide variety of texts on immigration/migration was consulted and it was noted that literature has generally neglected the importance of immigrant women’s integration into the host society, a gap this study attempts to fill. Purposive sampling, defined as a non-probability sampling procedure was used for the composition of the sample (Saunders et al, 2007). Data were gathered by mean of a questionnaire. The different sections related to demographic information, education, identity, and religion. A number of questions required the knowledge and practice of the local cultural approaches to daily life; in this way, focus was put on the lived experience of the respondents. To avoid bias, responses collected from the questionnaires were evaluated by using a purposely created mathematical tool (see page 6) which facilitated the formulation of an objective measurement of integration. The findings have shown a marked difference between the subjective perception of integration and the objective outcome. It is therefore possible to speculate that immigrant women in Liverpool are generally not integrated within the wider society of the city. Furthermore, the findings have shown that the knowledge of English, the level of education and the length of residence are useful indicators of integration.

Keywords: Immigrant Women, Integration, Host Country Language, Length of Residence

The International Journal of Civic, Political, and Community Studies, Volume 11, Issue 3, May 2014, pp.15-28. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Published online: May 7, 2014 (Article: Electronic (PDF File; 546.647KB)).

Dr. Nunzia Di Cristo Bertali

Research Fellow, The Centre for Linguistics and Intercultural Communications Studies, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK

Nunzia Di Cristo Bertali, MPhil, PhD is a research fellow at Liverpool John Moores University. She studied the perception of integration of Italian women who migrated to the North of England from 1945 to 1961. She published a monograph, Subjective vs. Objective integration of foreign women in Liverpool. She is a member of the Centre for Linguistics and Intercultural Communications Studies at Liverpool John Moores University. Nunzia is the Hon Consul of Italy for Merseyside.

Dr. Jarmila Hickman

Research Fellow, The Centre for Linguistics and Intercultural Communications Studies, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK

Jarmila Hickman, MA, PhD, is a research fellow at Liverpool John Moores University. Her research interests lie in sociolinguistics, including language of the media and language and gender as well as intercultural communication, dealing specifically with English, Russian and Czech. She published a monograph, Shifts in media discourse in 2009 and authored several articles on various aspects of newspaper headlines. She is a member of the Centre for Linguistics and Intercultural Communications Studies at Liverpool John Moores University.