Status and Situational Influences on the Emotional and Social Bases of Smiling: A Cross-Cultural Analysis Revisited

By Melissa A. Barfield-Works, Xiaohui Pan and William A. Haskins.

Published by The Humanities Collection

Format Price
Article: Print $US10.00
Article: Electronic $US5.00

We plan to retest an earlier study done on the topic of smiling between Chinese and United States university students in nine different situations. Smiling reflects not only ones inner emotional states but ones appropriate and competent behavior within these situations. The study will examine the potential cultural influences on individuals’ smiling and their attributions for such behavior in these various situations. We believe that due to changing economic, political and social relationships existing between China and the United States that these changes may warrant different findings in our study compared to the earlier one. The findings should enhance intercultural communication understanding between these two countries.

Keywords: Smiling, Intercultural Communication, Individualistic Culture, Collectivist Culture, Power Distance

International Journal of the Humanities, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp.145-154. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 614.847KB).

Dr. Melissa A. Barfield-Works

Assistant Professor of Sociology, Division of Social Sciences, McKendree University, Lebanon, Illinois, USA

I am a rural sociologist who studies issues of place, poverty, and welfare policy. I have been teaching at McKendree University for two years where I teach classes in the social work track as well as research methods and analysis. I received my doctorate from Mississippi State University in 2002.

Dr. Xiaohui Pan

Assicuate Professor of Communication, College of Communication, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China

I am an Associate Professor in the College of Communication at Shenzhen University in China. I have a broad interest in the field of communication ranging from mass communication to intercultural communication. Research interests include the possible writing of a book on cross-cultural methodology.

Dr. William A. Haskins

Professor of Speech Communication, Speech Communication, McKendree University, Lebanon, Illinois, USA

I am a professor of speech communication at McKendree University. I enjoy doing research in the areas of freedom of speech, intercultural communication and argumentative communication. I have been teaching for the past thirty-eight years. I have a wife named Linda, two children and four grandchildren. I enjoy traveling, eating different cultural foods and meeting people. I also enjoy playing tennis, exercising and drinking a good wine.


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