In Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes elaborates on the sole basis of Scripture an original theory of representation. He uses it in his interpretation of the Trinity and in his political argumentation. However, even today’s scholars (Quentin Skinner for example) believe that there is an ambiguity concerning the application of Hobbesian theology of the representative person to the role of the state. Trying to understand this last problem, Carl Schmitt used another theology. For him the ideal of the State is the Roman Catholic Church. Believing that Hobbes described the sovereign as merely an actor on a stage, he proposed instead another content for this political representation, through the model of two main Catholic dogmas: the infallibility of the pope and the Eucharist. As the pope represents God, because he is infallible, the Sovereign must represent the ‘people’: he (or she) always knows what the people want. This is why he emphasizes the unity of the people and its substantial homogeneity. The substantial homogeneity becomes in Carl Schmitt’s view the argument for sustaining that a democracy must be opposed to the liberal ideas of universal liberty and equality.
|Keywords:||Carl Schmitt, Thomas Hobbes, Representation, Political Theology, Artificial Person, Homogeneity, Anti-liberalism, Leviathan, Sovereignty|
Graduate Research Student, Master 2 Recherche Histoire de la Philosophie, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS), Bucharest, France
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