In this study, the differences in paper materials, layout patterns, calligraphy and character styles, signatures and seals of approved passports within the Qing Dynasty between 1880 and 1911 A.D. were examined and investigated. Results had shown that: 1. Passports used for personal identification in the Qing Dynasty did not have the perforation seal code. 2. The passports framed by dragons were only permitted for diplomatic officials who had completed their foreign services and had returned to homeland. Passports for most of the foreign visitors were framed by straight lines. 3. Passports were the only type of documents that have the “Qi Jun Gai Yue”(Seals aligning the title of the emperor's reign and covering the month in case of falsification). 4. “Qi Jun Gai Yue”had an important role in anti-counterfeiting, which eliminates the chances of altering the year or month. 5. Passports used for objects in the Qing Dynasty had a special approval form- “Ji Feng Gai Zi”(perforation seals) 6. The end of passports were signed by “Hu”(to protect) or “Dao”(road). If new forms or types of Qing passports were discovered, this study will continue on its research or further complements.
|Keywords:||Passports in Qing Dynasty, Layout Designs, Chinese Red Signatures|
Graduate School of Design Doctoral Program, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, yun-lin, Taiwan
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