As people across the world watched the class four Hurricane Katrina hit the Louisiana coast and the Mississippi Delta of the United States in late August 2005, they witnessed that a staggering number of people could not leave. We watched as they waded in the water, tried to swim to dry land and even succumbed to the water. We also recognized parallels between this disaster and the Middle Passage. The Middle Passage described as the most brutal of human atrocities toward other humans imaginable was the months’ long journey over water, the Atlantic Ocean, that brought Africans to the Americas and to slavery. Many died enroute and were tossed overboard. Others, hoping to return home, jumped overboard and to certain death. The images of water from Hurricane Katrina—the muddy water, the out of control water, the water that drowned people, the water carrying bodies, the water covering disappeared bodies—looked like the same water. The Katrina disaster was another ocean of death. Water in this context is a metaphor that runs deep in black historical memory, a repository for countless untold stories. In this paper, we will show how Katrina tapped into a historical memory, affecting black people in New Orleans as well as black people witnessing the event. This memory is not easily accessible today because the DuBoisian “double consciousness” which kept that memory alive is being replaced by consumerism and individualism. Neither provide the spiritual foundation that in the past bound black people to their history and to each other. Hurricane Katrina re-awakened these ties. As a way to understand the response to Hurricane Katrina, we seek to expand Du Bois’s view of double consciousness to include an analysis of what Gloria Anzaldúa calls “mestiza consciousness”. Such an expansion moves us toward a more comprehensive vision of social justice for the people of New Orleans.
|Keywords:||Historical Memory, Double Consciousness, Mestiza Consciousness|
Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Sociology Department, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York, USA
Professor, Sociology Department, Simmons College, Boston, Massachusettes, USA
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